[[ Reading ]] ➷ Ur-Fascism Author Umberto Eco – Selindameditasyon.com
This essay is an indispensable guide to recognising the characteristics of fascism, especially useful for the day and age we live in now. Umberto Eco contemplates on what is fasciscm in it s original Italian variety and how the term became an all encompassing for many radically right wing regimes, parties, movements, individuals and tendencies, even though they may be quite different from each other.Eventually he comes up with Eternal fascism Ur Fascism , and postulates 14 features he observes himself that many of those are contradicting each other It is enough that one of those features is present, he says, to allow fascism to coagulate around it.Here s the summarised list of these features 1 cult of tradition2 rejection of modernism3 action for action s sake4 disagreement is treason5 fear of difference6 appeal to a frustrated middle class7 obsession with a plot8 enemies are portrayed as both too strong and too weak9 pacifism is trafficking with the enemy10 contempt for the weak11 everybody is educated to become a hero12 machismo via weapons13 selective populism14 use of an impoverished vocabularyThe whole essay may be found here Ritengo Sia Possibile Indicare Una Lista Di Caratteristiche Tipiche Di Quello Che Vorrei Chiamare L Ur Fascismo , O Il Fascismo Eterno L Ur Fascismo Ancora Intorno A Noi, Talvolta In Abiti Civili Sarebbe Cos Confortevole, Per Noi, Se Qualcuno Si Affacciasse Sulla Scena Del Mondo E Dicesse Voglio Riaprire Auschwitz, Voglio Che Le Camicie Nere Sfilino Ancora In Parata Sulle Piazze Italiane Ahim , La Vita Non Cos Facile L Ur Fascismo Pu Ancora Tornare Sotto Le Spoglie Pi Innocenti Il Nostro Dovere Di Smascherarlo E Di Puntare L Indice Su Ognuna Delle Sue Nuove Forme Ogni Giorno, In Ogni Parte Del Mondo Umberto Eco This is the translation into Italian of a short essay Eco presented in English in 1995 at a Columbia University symposium on the 25th April, Liberation Day in Italy, and was later published in The New York Review of Books You can still read it there, legally and for free.After a very interesting autobiographical part about his childhood during the Fascist dictatorship Eco was born in 1932 , the writer lists the main features of fascism, many of them contradict each other, and are also typical of other kinds of despotism or fanaticism But it is enough that one of them be present to allow fascism to coagulate around it Sadly Eco s little handbook on how to recognise the features of fascism is still very useful, especially in Europe and in the USA of today I find particularly chilling the considerations about feature number 13, a selective populism, a qualitative populism, one might say In a democracy, the citizens have individual rights, but the citizens in their entirety have a political impact only from a quantitative point of view one follows the decisions of the majority For Ur Fascism, however, individuals as individuals have no rights, and the People is conceived as a quality, a monolithic entity expressing the Common Will Since no large quantity of human beings can have a common will, the Leader pretends to be their interpreter Having lost their power of delegation, citizens do not act they are only called on to play the role of the People Thus the People is only a theatrical fiction Let s remember that Libert e liberazione sono un compito che non finisce mai Freedom and liberation are an unending task To honour the people who fought against fascism, here Bella Ciao in the Irish version by Modena City Ramblers. Fascism this word had been observed by me in recent years as a great bag of cats where everything fits Just put inside the bag.Reading this book, I saw that there is no way to be different, because fascism is a chaotic patchwork without any philosophy behind Nationalism joins with church, capitalism and conservatism, and it s ready. Fascism as a word has been abused as a catch all term for politics deemed oppressive, this has had an unfortunate side effect of obscuring what Fascism actually was is Ur Fascism is helpful as an easy short read that is available for free online Eco s analysis of his childhood under Fascist Italy reads as eerily relevant to a political landscape filled with reactionaries I would recommend this text as both an easy way to define what Fascism is and therefore identify it and as a dire warning of its consequences. Good one It is impressive how the life of Umberto Eco and its context did not make a fascist out of him.I really enjoyed the book, so much that I am thinking of reading books related to politics. A must to understand fascism of any kindEco has lived the Italian one but has been able to summarize in few points how to spot new surging forms of fascism. A former resident of Mussolini s Italy, Umberto Eco writes on how the initial tenets of fascism aren t just a historical bogeyman from the past, but a very real threat, and can become resurgent if the warning signs are ignored If democracy ceases to move forward as a living force, seeking day and night by peaceful means to better the lot of our citizens and maintain economic balance, fascism or violence will grown in its stead.I was inspired to read it by the recent political turmoil in the middle east, and it is a healthy reminder to me that Freedom and liberation are an unending task. Dear America,I hope you re fucking happy.Sincerely,Violet.