books pdf Discours de la Méthode suivi de Méditations Métaphysiques – Selindameditasyon.com
La figura de Descartes como fil sofo no ha sido objeto de un nime interpretaci n Sobre todo en la actualidad se juzga y pondera su obra no menos que su personalidad, de manera diferente Para algunos, Descartes es de preferencia un metod logo W Windelband, P Natorp Su preocupaci n, su gran preocupaci n consisti , seg n ellos, en dar un fundamento l gico a la nueva ciencia natural, como l mismo lo intent y lo hizo Descartes es, de cierto, as un cl sico en la historia de la filosof a como en cl sico en la historia de la ciencia Para otros, la intenci n acuciante e ntima de Descartes era de orden moral y religioso L Blanchet, por ejemplo apaciguar el conflicto entre revelaci n y raz n, entre fe y saber De ah , se dice, la importancia concedida a la idea de Dios en todo el sistema.Un tercer grupo enfatiza en las apreciaciones los perfiles ontol gicos y metaf sicos de la obra cartesiana la finalidad reside, a su juicio, en vivir experiencias ontol gicas del yo y del mundo F Al pi , M Gu roult. Dude talks about robots than I would have expected There s also one point in the Discourse where he pretty forcefully tells you to close the book and not start reading again until you ve dissected a cow. There are timesWhen all the world s asleepThe questions run so deepFor such a simple man SupertrampRELAX, folks Here, at last, is a Simple book with Simple answers for ALL us Simple, struggling souls The Meditations of Descartes was one of the KEY books in my life I read it to make my thinking clearer and, in time, it worked It s nice to have solid earth beneath my feet for a change My first really close reading was nearly forty years ago, at a time when I was learning about the practice of meditation in daily life This book said it far better than any of the occult and transcendental books that are out there And yet its ideas are identical in essence to Buddhist theory How so Buddha said there are three obstacles to clear thinking Passion, Agression and Ignorance And Descartes starts by dismantling Ignorance Why Because, he says, being retired from the military, he was now at an age where he could put the other two, active obstacles Passion and Agression to rest Now how many of US can say we have done that by the time we retire Very few of us, I suppose, because these two turbulent emotions help drive the economy So maybe they are tacitly encouraged But are they really necessary Here s one senior who ll tell you they just get in the way of thinking clearlyListen, once you get to my age, thinking straight s better and valuable than any kid s Saturday Night Fever And aren t these two turbulent passions at the root of our ignorance, and our confusion in public AND the two progenitors of those faceless, ugly Ringwraiths that gallop through the dark forests of our minds and our uneasy slumber Waking up is hard, but in the end produces peace of mind Unreality is easy but it s not Real Here s one simple rule Descartes uses when he begins to eliminate his ignorance Keep the Faith Don t abandon your core beliefs if you re attempting to sharpen your mind You might really NEED them some day when things become TOO clear And nothing causes confusion faster than a mental free fall through this hyped up world for the rest of your lifeHold onto something solid.Anyway, if you re thinking clearly at this point, Descartes says, tell me, what do you Really know for sure Well you know you re here.Right you, and no one else just simple, ordinary you are here You re REAL The modern media smokescreens and all those bullying attempts to get you to doubt yourself they re all gone.And you know that because you can now THINK FOR YOURSELF.That s it.Like I said, it was forty years ago when I first started to pay close attention to this little bookI knew I was being misled on many quarters back then, but I couldn t grasp the root causes.Isn t it incredible how when we re growing up we put up our own smokescreens against self knowledge Because we re the ones doing it And it s a good thing in a way It s sort of like Perseus refusing to look at the head of Medusa Sheer self preservation Common sense Don t dive off the deep end when you re just learning to swim Take it slow.But if you re a committed reader, taking your time reading and assimilating, sooner or later in your life you ll see things a lot clearly just like Descartes, who took his adjustment to the unvarnished facts of the world SLOW.And once you can think clearly, you ll be your OWN master.We can learn a lot from this 17th century dude, you know.And if you learn Descartes lessons clearly You ll never be fooled again. Very unfortunate hair notwithstanding, Rene I think, therefore I exist Descartes was one of the most influential contemplators in the history of philosophy and was instrumental in fomenting the modern modes of intellectual exploration known as deductive reasoning and the scientific method While he was certainly not alone in the wilderness championing the transformation of knowledge accumulation methods, he was definitely among the significant trail blazers dropping bread crumbs for the participants of the scientific revolution to follow.His most important contribution to this endeavor was this treatise which he penned quilled in 1637 Now for those who love to take deeps breaths, fill their mouths with a lot of words and then allow them to spill out, all smart like, in front of company, the full name of Descartes most famous work is Discourse on the Method of Rightly Conducting One s Reason and of Seeking Truth in the Sciences It is a treatise intended not to convey specific factual knowledge, but rather is intended to provide the methodology through which knowledge may be obtained Descartes based his search for truth on ascertaining knowledge that could be derived from first principals and created a method outlined below from which all research into scientific principals, according to Descartes, should be based He begins by saying that because so many different and contradictory theories have been set forth by learned and great men that it is impossible to trust anything that you can not verify yourself based on your own observations This skepticism of all that has come before was the cornerstone for his approach and has remained an integral component of modern scientific thinking and experimentation If you can t prove it, it didn t happen THE METHOD If you would be a real seeker after truth, you must at least once in your life doubt, as far as possible, all things In Section II of Discourse, Descartes defines the Method he will use to establish knowledge of the world It is comprised of the following four steps 1 Be skeptical of everything and do not accept anything as truth until you can be certain of its correctness and completely free from doubt The first precept was never to accept a thing as true until I knew it as such without a single doubt 2 Divide each problem into the smallest parts possible so that you can be looking at its component parts which will be the easiest to understand Divide each difficulty into as many parts as is feasible and necessary to resolve it 3 Start from most basic concept and add complexity slowly and in degrees so that you can be absolutely certain of each step along the way and 4 From your use of 1 through 3 create general rules applicable to the whole of the subject and that apply to the largest possible group Each problem that I solved became a rule, which served afterwards to solve other problems Descartes discussion of the method and its application is remarkable as a piece of insight into the mind of an intellectual juggernaut The man could think his booty off THE MORALS Following his break down of the components of the Method, Descartes goes on the in Section III of The Discourse to identify three maxims, referred to as morals, that he will adhere to in his studies 1 Obey the laws of his Country boring, yet practical 2 Be firm and resolute in the pursuit of knowledge a bit Captain Obvious but I think that is part of the point of returning to first principals and 3 Conquer self rather than fortune i.e., don t pursue truth based on your own material advantage lest you avoid a line of reasoning that may be true but would lead to a disadvantage for you In other words, truth should be your only goal Here, Descartes does a nice job describing what should be the goal of men of learning and the importance of removing your own motivations from the equation If only people would take heed of this pearl of wisdom APPLICATION OF THE METHOD In Section IV, Descartes takes his Method and his Morals and applies them to derive the basic truth of his existence expressed in the famous utterance Cogito ergo sum He also uses this section to put forth his most controversial use of his system by proving the existence of God Whew.I m glad that s settled now what s for supper This last proof is called the negotiable ontological proof of the existence of God and centers on the idea that God s existence is immediately inferable a priori from any contemplation of the idea of a supreme being Let me stave off any religious discussion at this point by simply saying that Descartes application of the method here is a tad strained and I think even he saw that as his reasoning is categorical than deductive THE REST Sections V and VI Up through the end of Section IV, I would have given this 4 or 5 stars as it was both fascinating and presented in a fashion that was easily understood and digested Section 5 and 6, comprising the half of this work, was cluttered and read like a pile of muddle It was also mostly uninteresting and concerned the difference between man and animals and the working of the human circulatory system I felt like I had stumbled into some ill advised sequel that failed to pick up the plot from the earlier work My advice skip that last two sections I think you ll be happier The meat of the work in is the first 4 sections and that is what I would recommend to anyone even remotely interested in evolution of modern scientific and philosophical thought Overall, 3.5 stars though the first four sections get a strong 4 to 5 stars.HIGHLY RECOMMENDED as long as you stop after Section IV P.S Just to spike the ball on behalf of Mr Descartes, he was also extremely influential in the field of mathematics and is considered the father of analytical geometry Impressive is it not. No pueden ser verdaderos todos nuestros pensamientos..Las almas m s grandes son capaces de los mayores vicios, as como de las mayores virtudes y los que andan muy despacio pueden llegar mucho m s lejos, si van siempre por el camino recto, que los que corren y se apartan de l.